I am thirsty even after taking adequate fluids! Also feel hungry soon after the breakfast or lunch.!! These are the prominent symptom of the most common metabolic disorder namely Diabetes Mellitus (DM). This is one of the most important causes of death in humans all over the world.
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease in which body’s ability to produce or respond to the hormone Insulin (produced in Pancreas) is impaired, resulting in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and elevated or decreased levels of glucose in the blood.
The level of glucose fluctuate according to the food intake.
Normal glucose level:
Fasting: 70 – 100 mg/dl.
Postprandial (after food intake): 120 – 140 mg/dl
What is the Mystery Behind Diabetes Mellitus?
About 90% of people suffer from DM, unaware of the mechanism that increasing their blood glucose levels. They feel terrific and avoid eating glucose containing food! that may sometimes lethal. Therefore, awareness of underlying mechanism is of great help to prevent unwanted complications and death (due to hypo or hyperglycemia).
In Normal Person
After food intake
Normal Insulin release from the Pancreas
Stable and normal glucose level in the blood
In Diabetes Person
After food intake
Reduced or no Insulin production from the Pancreas
Unstable and abnormal glucose level in the blood (hypo/hyperglycemia).
Insulin produced from the Pancreas gland regulates glucose metabolism. Due to low or no insulin production from the Pancreas, diabetic patients present with high and sometimes low blood glucose levels.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM):
Clinically diabetes is manifested in 3 forms which are listed below….
- Type 1 Diabetes (insulin-dependent): In this type, there is no insulin production from the pancreas.
- Type2 Diabetes (insulin-non dependent): In this type, insulin production from the pancreas is normal but body cells do not respond/use it.
- Gestational Diabetes: It is common for some women during pregnancy (gestation).
Diabetes Mellitus Causes (Etiology):
- Family History
- Sedentary Lifestyle (Immobility)
- Increased Age
- Bad Dietary Habits
- Autoimmune Diseases
- Viral Infection (pancreatitis)
- Pregnancy (in some cases).
Signs and Symptoms of DM:
- Fatigue and dizziness
- Increased thirst (polydipsia)
- Increased urination (polyuria)
- Increased appetite/hungry (polyphagia)
- Weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Slow wound healing
- Vaginal infections
- Sexual problems and
- Sleep disturbances.
How to Confirm Diabetes Mellitus (Diagnosis)?
Diabetes is confirmed by various tests like
- Glycated haemoglobin (A1C) test (glucometer test)
- Fasting glucose test
- Oral glucose tolerance test
- Random plasma glucose test.
Cure and Treatment (Management) of Diabetes Mellitus:
Diabetic patients require single or multiple insulin injections every day to maintain safe glucose levels. There are four types of insulin.
- Rapid-acting insulin
- Short-acting insulin
- Intermediate-acting insulin
- Long-acting insulin.
Insulin injections are administered subcutaneously, dosage and frequency depend on patient glucose levels.
In some cases, despite controlled diet and exercise blood sugar remain high. For those patients drugs in the form of pills are prescribed. Common drugs are….
- Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza)
- DPP-4 inhibitors
- SGLT2 inhibitors
- GLP-1 receptor agonists.
Dietary and Physical Therapy:
- Low-fat dairy products and unsweetened yogurt
- Fruits and vegetables: fresh and whole fruits, avoid juices
- High-quality proteins such as beans, eggs
- Fish, organic chicken or turkey
- High-fiber cereals, whole grains
- Healthy fats: Nuts, olive oil, fish oils, flax seeds, or avocados.
Regular exercises and lifestyle changes help to control, cure, and prevent diabetes.
Curative and Preventive measures:
Diabetes can be cured (up to 80%) with some simple but magical tricks. If you are on insulin therapy or taking any diabetic medicines, you must coordinate this regimen with your doctor, so as to adjust insulin or medicines dosage.
The simple but effective regimen to cure diabetes.
1. No to snacks between meals:
It seems very hard to follow, but effective to control diabetes and weight. It is not so hard if you follow the trick of replacing snacking by eating with an avocado before meals. Avocado which is rich in fat and coats the intestine blocks other food from being absorbed and reduces the size of your meal. You feel fullness and ultimately avoid junk foods in between meals.
Cooking with olive oil also increase healthy fat content and help you refrain from snacking.
If you have a hard time to resist the temptation of eating snacks, have tea or coffee with a bit of cream but never with sugar or other sweeteners.
2. Limit meal count and time:
Avoid eating many times and limit the number of meals 2 to 3 per day at a regular time. It helps your body to use insulin properly and prevents insulin resistance.
3. Maintain a gap of at least 12 hours between the end of dinner and beginning of breakfast:
When you eat dinner, eat until you’re full. This way you don’t feel hungry at night and can wait for your breakfast tomorrow morning.
4. Have a swig of vinegar before every meal:
Vinegar lowers blood sugar by 30%, and most of the people use apple cider vinegar. If you can’t stomach it, 5 gherkin pickles also do the trick
5.Cut down sweets entirely for a couple of months if you can:
It is better to severely restrict sweets for the first month, and then gradually re-introduce if you can’t resist your temptation. But always be sure about your glucose level changes before and after sweets consumption.
6. Healthy Breakfast:
Eat less carbohydrate and high fiber content breakfast.
7. Exercise more:
Regularly giving your muscles a workout has been shown to promote insulin sensitivity.
Don’t let yourself and others to refrain from regimen to have a complete cure of DM.
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a disease of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by Polyuria, Polyphagia, and Polydipsia. Diabetes is controlled and treated in many cases with insulin injections and medications. But diabetes mellitus cure and control completely depends on the patient will and strict dietary and lifestyle modifications. If DM left untreated or uncontrolled may lead to fatal complications like cardiovascular diseases, Neuropathy, Nephropathy, Retinopathy and foot damage diabetic foot) etc.